What is biofloc system? And how to produce biofloc?
What is biofloc system? And how to produce biofloc?
biofloc setup

Biofloc system specially develop for Aquaculture to improve environmental control over production. The place where the water is scarce and land is expensive, extensive aquaculture farming must be participated for low cost production.

There are strong economic incentives for an aquaculture business to be more efficient with production inputs, especially the most costly (feed) and most limiting (water or land). High-density rearing of fish typically requires some waste treatment infrastructure. At its core, biofloc is a waste treatment system.

Benefits of biofloc system

One of the benefits of bio-floc systems is it capacity to recycle waste nutrients via microbial protein into fish or prawns. The main component of bio-floc is nitrogen that is incorporated into bacterial cells. One other benefit of biofloc systems is the benefit of improved feed conversion ratios derived from the consumption of microbial protein. It should also be noted that bi-floc systems are generally implemented as pond based systems as they add the most benefits to pond based aquaculture.  That’s why biofloc system reduce the feeding cost and also yield more in small area.

What is floc ?

Bioflocs are aggregates (flocs) of algae, bacteria, protozoans, and other kinds of particulate organic matter such as feces and uneaten feed. Each floc is held together in a loose matrix of mucus that is secreted by bacteria, bound by filamentous microorganisms, or held by electrostatic attraction.

Biofloc shown in bottle

What biofloc systems do ?

Bioflocs provide two critical services –

  • A) Treating wastage from feeding
  • B) providing nutrition from floc consumption.

When feed is provided to fish tank and produce waste when fishes release shit . Then active flocs converts these waste to protein (nutrition), which is consumable for fish.

Suitable culture species :

A basic factor in designing a biofloc system is the species to be cultured. Biofloc systems work best with species that are able to derive some nutritional benefit from the direct consumption of floc. Biofloc systems are also most suitable for species that can tolerate high solids concentration in water and are generally tolerant of poor water quality. The fishes that consume biofloc and digest microbial protein. Mostly shrimp, tilapia,catfish, or carps are suitable for biofloc system.

How biofloc produce ?

Here are the steps to follow to produce biofloc:

  1. wash the container with shop or with cleaning agent.
  2. Dry the Container to free from harmful Bactria
  3. Fill water with 50% height ( The water should be from natural pond water, not mineral water )– Check the TDS of the water. it normally TDS level is 400-500.
  4. Give a aeration by aerator pump for hole day and continue ( Minimum 2 days to if any issue in PH level of water, and stable the TDS of water)
  5. Add sea salt ( not iodized salt ) 1kg salt / 1000 Lit water to rise the TDS level of water. in this ratio TDS increase 1000 for 1000 Lit of water in the afternoon. ( should bring TDS of water 1800-1900, where normally is 400-500, if the TDS level is not increasing then you could add additional salt to increase the TDS of water. )
  6. Add CaCO3 (Calcium Carbonate ) 1 tsp / 1000lit of water in the afternoon.OPTIONAL It is applicable if your PH of water is below 6. If more then 6 it is not applicable. (Standard PH of water is 6-8 for biofloc)
  7. Add pro-biotic 1ml / 1000Lit water and also add molasses 2ml / 1000 Lit ,i.e. molasses will be double of the pro-biotic. This should to add in the night.
  8. Let aerator for 3-8 days until floc produce. Generally floc produce in 7-10 days.
Fish eating biofloc

** To test the floc, you can take a tilapia fish in small fish tank and the water of the tank should be clear to test. and don’t feed the fish for one day. Now pour the floc you produced( is in doubt ) into fish tank. After that, If the fish takes all the flocks you provided, then be sure it is biofloc.


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  1. Nice information

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